Heavy lingual frenums
A heavy lingual frenum (tongue tie) has been shown to be a factor in childhood sleep apnea. It makes sense that a heavy lingual frenum could be a factor in a narrow maxilla. If a child has a heavy frenum, and the tongue does not have the full range to exert lateral pressure on the maxilla then the growth could be affected. If the lingual frenum is very heavy, it can physically restrict the movement of the tongue.
Recent studies have indicated that a high number of children with sleep apnea have a severe tongue tie. Children with a narrow maxilla are more likely to be mouth breathers. Mouth breathing can be a factor in enlarged tonsils. So, the bottom line is we as dentists need to be aware of these problems and try to catch problems before they have contributed to facial growth problems.